Standards are nothing but the development and implementation of concepts,guidelines, procedures and design to achieve and maintain the required levels of compatibility, interchangeability or commonality in the operational,procedural, material, technical and administrative field to attain required performance, reliability, consistency, durability or aesthetics.
Standards provide technical specification and performance-based requirements, which focus on functional capabilities of covered products/ Technologies.
The standards are essential for both manufacturers and consumers. They help manufacturers to produce their We products in the best possible way/method which optimise their manufacturing costs as well as ensuring the required quality of the product. Standards help customers in choosing the appropriate product to suit their requirements.
It is the standard , which provides a comman base for selection of materials,method of production and testing.
Throughout the design procedure, the engineer who is responsible for making the final material selection decision must be aware of relevant performance and production specification and standards.
Conformity with standards generally signify product has been properly designed, so that it will ensure the environmental, electrical and mechanical stress which it is expected to encounter in service.
The design engineer must ensure that the standard complies to the product being fabricated and must be certain that the standard ensure that the end product will perform satishfactory.
We have many standards available such as NEEMA, DIN, ESI, AS/NZS,IEC, ANSI, ASTM, IS, BSI etc for the design and testing of most of the connectors. However, design and testing of certain type of connectors such as Insulation Piercing connector and the Connector with Insulated cover may require development of standards which apart from the requirements contained in generic standards shall have additional requirements included in it. Supreme after careful evaluation of materials and different types of tests such as TGA, DSC analysis, Protection degree verification etc required to ensure the suitable electrical and mechanical requirements of every component of the connector and also the special requirements of different customers and utilities such as ENEL, has developed such specially developed standards keeping the product-specific features in mind for these exceptional type of connectors.
Supreme has got a well equipped in-house testing laboratory with facilities for performing various tests as per different international standards and experienced Quality assurance personnel who do constant inspection at every stage in the manufacture of product from raw materials to finished product in order to ensure that standards of quality set by manufacturer, by standards or by customer are being met.
We carry out New design testing, Pre-purchase qualification testing, Ondelivery conformance testing and Failure analysis. Our quality procedures and practices comply with ISO 9001 requirements. We also provide test reports from government accredited testing laboratories on request of the customers.
1. Chemical analysis.
2. Galvanizing test.
3. Visual Inspection
4. Dimension check
5. Resistance test
6. Tensile test.
7. Hardness test
1. Assembly & Removal test.
2. Thermal cycle test (refer clause 2.1).
3. Short time current test (refer clause 2.2)
4. Slip load test
5. Residual break load test
Special tests for EHV Connectors
1. Pull out Strength test
2. Cantilever strength test of bus supports (refer clause 2.3).
3. Torque strength test of bolted connectors.
4. Tensile/ Bending test on Aluminum weldment couplers.
5. Corona/ RIV test. (explained in clause 2.4)
Special tests for Insulated connectors:
1. Water Penetration test (explained in clause 2.5)
2.Protection degree Verification
3. Ageing test (explained in clause 2.6)
Temperature cycle test:
A set of six/ four samples is connected in a loop with their appropriate main and branch conductors.A current required to raise the temperature of the cannector to 100 degree celsius with the temperature of reference conductor not exceeding 140 degree celcius is applied to the loop for a definite time.The current is then interrupted once the connector reaches 100 degree celcius. The loop is allowed to cool to the atmospheric temperature. This cycle is repeated several times as per the specification.
Short time current test*
The sample is connected to short circuit generator and a short time current pulse, which is required to increase the temperature of the reference conductor to 250 degree Celsius, is applied for a duration of 1 second. Such kind of particular number of shots is applied to the connector depending upon the number of heat cycles performed.
Cantilever strength test of bus supports:
The cantilever strength is determined by applying a load at the centerline of the conductor, transverse to the conductor longitudinal axis.
The test is conducted in a darkened area to locate and observe the presence or absence of Corona. The observation is made only for Positive corona as it is the primary cause of radio interference. A voltage equal to 30 % over voltage is gradually applied to identify the corona locations and the corona inception voltage. The voltage shall then be reduced gradually to identify the corona extinction voltage.
RIV can be made with High voltage testing apparatus as per NEEMA standards or other international standards. RIV test shall be omitted if all the sources of corona have been identified with the test set up of Visual observation.
EHV connector testing is done with the conductors of smallest cross section as smaller conductors are susceptible to corona at low voltages.
Water Penetration test/ Dielectric test:
The test sample is kept immersed in water for a duration of one hour. Then a voltage equal to 3/4/6 KV is applied to the sample through a High voltage test apparatus and this voltage is reached in 1 minute. The sample is allowed to withstand this tension for 15 minutes and the voltage is brought down.
The sample is kept under different simulated weather conditions such as saltwater spray, fog, dust, high humidity, Ultra violet exposure and a combination of any of these to observe the ageing properties of the material.
1. BS 3288
2. BS 1490
3. BS 729
4. IEC 1238
5. IEC 61284.
6. AS/ NZS 4396
7. ESI 43-14
8. ANSI C 119.4
9. ASTM D 570
10. ASTM A 153
11. IS 2004
12. NEMA CC1
13. NEMA CC3
* To be performed in NABL Accredited Laboratories.
Reference Current ratings for Thermal cycle test (as per NEEMA CC1):
8 Glossary of Terms :
Definitions As per Standards
Bolted type Connector:
In a bolted type connector, the contact between the conductor and the connector is made by pressure exerted by one or more clamping bolts.
A branch connector is an angle connector, which joins a branch conductor to the main conductor at a specified angle.
A bus support is a metal member, usually mounted on an insulator, which supports a bus conductor.
Combined “t” and straight connector (“t” coupler):
A combined “T” and straight connector joins two main conductors end to end and also joins a branch conductor to the main conductors at an angle of 90 degrees.
A conductor is constructed from conducting material so that it may be used as a carrier of electric current.
A connector is a device, which joins two or more conductors for the purpose of providing a continuous electrical path.
A cross connector joins two branch conductors to the main conductor. The branch conductors are opposite to each other and perpendicular to the main conductor.
Design tests are made on the completion of the development of a new design to establish representative performance data. They need to be repeated only if the design is changed to modify its performance.
HV, EHV, UHV power connectors:
A HV, EHV or UHV power connector is a connector, bus support or other device which, when installed on its conductor, does not generate corona or noise at nominal voltage.
An expansion connector provides a flexible connection between rigid conductors or between a rigid conductor and electrical apparatus.
A hot-line clamp is a connector, which shall be permitted to be installed while the conductor is energized.
“ L” connector:
An “L” connector is an angle connector, which joins two conductors end to end at an angle of 90 degrees.
A main conductor is a continuous conductor from which other conductors branch.
Pad angle terminal connector:
A pad angle terminal connector joins a conductor to the terminal pad of electrical apparatus at a specified angle.
Pad terminal connector:
A pad terminal connector joins a conductor to the terminal pad of electrical apparatus.
A parallel connector joins to parallel conductors, which may overlap each other.
Pressed-tubular terminal connector:
A pressed tubular terminal connector is fabricated or pressed from tubing.
Pressure type connector:
A pressure type connector is applied with integral screw, cone, or other mechanical parts.
A range taking connector accommodates more than one conductor size.
Routine test are made to verify the quality and uniformity of the workmanship and materials used in the manufacture of electric power connectors.
A service connector is a parallel connector in which the contact between the conductor is obtained by mechanically applied pressure.
Shrink-fit type connector:
In a shrink-fit type connector the contact between the conductor and the connector is made by a shrink-fit.
Single size connector:
A single size connector accommodates only one conductor size.
Solder type connector:
In a solder type connector the contact between the conductor and the connector is made by a soldered joint.
A split-sleeve connector is of split sleeve form and is tinned for soldering.
Straight adapter connector:
A straight adapter connector joins two conductors of different shapes end to end in a straight line.
A straight connector joins two lengths of conductor end to end in a straight line.
Straight coupler connector:
A straight coupler connector joins two conductors of equal sizes end to end in a straight line.
Straight reducer connector:
A straight reducer connector joins two conductors of unequal sizes end to end in a straight line .
Stud angle terminal connector:
A stud angle terminal connector joins a conductor to the round terminal stud of electrical apparatus at a specified angle.
Stud terminal connector:
A stud angle terminal connector joins a conductor to the round terminal stud of electrical apparatus.
A “T” connector is a branch connector, which joins a branch conductor to the main conductor at an angle of 90 degrees.
A tang is that portion of the connector, which is used to fasten a connector to a terminal pad.
A tap conductor branches off from a main conductor.
A terminal connector joins a conductor to a lead, terminal pad or round terminal stud of electrical apparatus.
A terminal pad is the flat conducting part of a device to which a terminalconnector is fastened.
Threaded type connector:
In a threaded type connector the contact between the conductor and the connector is made by pressure exerted on a threaded part.
Twisted sleeve connector:
A twisted sleeve connector is a parallel connector in which the contact between the conductors is obtained by a spiral twist in the connector and the conductors after their assembly.
A “V” connector joins two branch conductors to a main conductor. The branch conductors are perpendicular to the main conductor and have an included angle between them of less than 180 degrees.
In a wedge-type connector the contact between the conductor and the connector is made by pressure exerted by a wedge.
A “Y” connector joins two branch conductors to the main conductor at an angle. The three conductors are in the same plane.
In a weld-type connector the contact between the conductor and the connector is made by welding.
According to IEC 1238
Device for connecting a conductor to an equipment terminal or for connecting two or more conductors to each other.
Connector for connecting two consecutive length of conductor.
Connector for connecting a branch conductor to a main conductor
Connector comprising a palm and a connector barrel, for connecting a conductor to an equipment terminal.
Part of a terminal lug used to make the connection to the equipment terminals.
Part of a connector, into which the conductor to be connected is introduced.
Assembly comprising the connector barrel and that portion of the conductor which has been brought into intimate contact with it during the joining process.
Length of un joined bare conductor or conductor with the insulation removed, which is included in the test loop and which enables the reference temperature and reference resistance to be determined.
Arrangement used in the test loop to ensure a point of equi-potential in a stranded conductor.
Method of securing a connector to a conductor by using a special tool to produce permanent deformation of the connector and the conductor.
Method of securing a connector to a conductor, for example by means of a bolt or screw acting on the latter.
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